Hepatic lipidosis is caused by an accumulation of excess fat in liver cells. Many factors that can affect the liver The recent involvement of wild cottontails and hares is of particular concern. The diseases and conditions that affect the liver can damage its structure or function of regulating metabolism, producing macronutrients and detoxification of drugs and chemicals. Some of the causes of hepatic lipidosis may be dental disease, fiber content in the diet that is too low, obese animals that become sick, difficult pregnancies, and others.1 Radiographs, bloodwork, and ultrasound can help diagnose this condition. Lymphoma, bile duct adenoma, and carcinoma are among the most common types of tumors described in the rabbit liver (1). It is usually triggered by anorexia. A non-profit rabbit rescue and education organization. Less than 12 rabbits were recently purchased from an open market in Kentucky, no cases of RHDV1 were located in Kentucky. Referring veterinarian (rDVM) diagnostics included blood work, radiographs, and ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration of the mass. If you find white spots in your rabbits liver it is generally a tell tale sign of coccidiosis. The value of companion rabbits is immeasurable, and this must be considered in policy conditions concerning RHDV control. 2. HRS shall not accept rabbits from areas where RHDV is endemic without a 14-day quarantine. Seek veterinary evaluation of any unexplained rabbit death. by Jennifer Graham, DVM, Dipl. When sedation is used, ultrasound can be used to guide the veterinarian to collect aspirates (aspirates are taken by inserting a needle into the tissue and using a syringe to suction cells out of the tissue; when the cells are placed on a slide, they can be examined for any abnormalities) or biopsies (biopsies involve taking a small piece of the organ using a biopsy instrument; this gives a larger section of tissue for an analysis and allows for a better chance of finding a diagnosis for the problem) of the liver. HRS recognizes the legal and ethical responsibility to report cases of this virulent disease and does not condone concealing this information from authorities. Lastly, there is a small circular lobe called the caudate lobe next to the right kidney. Gamma Glutamyltransferase (GGT): Elevations in GGT are very specific for rabbit liver disease. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1997. p 147-159. Prognosis varies depending on severity of disease and individual response to therapy. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2000. p 291-304. Quarantine any rabbit who MAY have been exposed to RHDV or its vectors for 14 days. Liver fluke: Fasciola hepatica is a liver fluke that can affect rabbits that graze in pastures containing carrier snails (snails are an intermediate host for the parasite). Call your vet to ask what to do. Bilirubin and Bile Acids: Elevations in bilirubin in the rabbit can occur with bile obstruction. Part 1: clinical features, gross, How to Keep Your Clinic and Patients Safe from Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease, Recommended Rabbit Standard Operating Procedures for Shelters/Rescue Facilities due to Emergence of RHDV2, handout helps people finding a new home for a rabbit, Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease and Other Lagoviruses, Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Standard Operating Procedures: 1. June November 2020Wild and domestic rabbits died of RHDV2 in these counties: Iron, San Juan, Sanpete, Wayne (Teasdale area). This is a common disease in rabbitries and young rabbits. However, if ALT is significantly elevated, it may indicate liver inflammation and necrosis (such as that caused by parasites, and or hepatic lipidosis) (3). RHDV protocol recommendations for animal shelters and rescue facilities: The role of HRS regarding this issue will be to provide support to the public by collecting, evaluating, and disseminating information on RHDV. While under quarantine, no live rabbits, rabbit products (including fur and meat), or equipment are allowed to leave the property except under the express permission of the State Veterinarian., Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA): WSDA will not depopulate domestic, feral, or wild rabbit colonies where rabbits have been exposed and recovered from RHD. State authorities should know that there are concerned companion rabbit caregivers and rabbit rescues in your state whose interests must be included in policymaking. The key to effective treatment is early diagnosis and supportive therapy. This type 1 virus is a different strain than the 2018 RHDV2 cases in Ohio and Canada. Radiographs, ultrasound, and liver biopsy are used to diagnose liver tumors. 4/10/2000 Crawford County, IA: The first confirmed case of RHDV1 in the United States. In states with confirmed RHDV2 cases in wild rabbits or stray/feral domestic rabbits, the USDA has given permission to State Veterinarians to designate labs in that state for RHDV2 testing. RHDV2 immunity is 7 days after the vaccine is administered. Lab Anim 1995; 29(2):163-171. This is very important to prevent the spread of this awful disease. In veterinarian Dr. Frances Harcourt-Browns survey. March July 2020Domestic and wild rabbits died of RHDV2 in these counties: Bernalillo, Catron, Chaves, Cibola, Colfax, Curry, Dona Ana, Eddy, Grant, Lincoln, Los Alamos, Luna, McKinley, Otero, Roosevelt, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Sierra, Socorro, Taos, Torrance, Valencia. The government is currently developing a vaccine specific to this RHDV2 genotype. The rabbit owner may decrease the risk of liver disease in their rabbit by avoiding feeding moldy food and avoiding the use of shavings such as cedar and pine for bedding. No other rabbits are on the property.6/21/19 Vancouver, BC Canada Several pet rabbits in a downtown Vancouver apartment died from RHDV.4/10/19 Vancouver Area, BC Canada Four stray domestic rabbits in Parksville died from RHDV2.3/2/18 Vancouver Area, BC Canada An outbreak of RHDV2 was reported starting in February in the Nanaimo area on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada, with cases on the Canadian mainland in the Vancouver, BC area. USDA-APHISs Center for Veterinary Biologics can issue a special permit for the import of RHDV vaccines that are not licensed in the US. In: A. Fudge, Editor. Diseases. This article discusses two of the more common liver diseases in rabbits: hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver) and toxic liver damage. Jenkins J. Canadian vets worked together and imported a European vaccine. free shipping over $50 (USA & Canada) 1-877-937-4372 the pet expert hotline. Bile acids may be elevated with liver disease in the rabbit. The disease, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, is highly contagious and can jump between wild and domestic populations. Aflatoxins are very toxic to the liver and can cause sickness and death in affected rabbits. This parasite can be treated with a variety of drugs including sulfa preparations such as sulfamethoxine or trimethoprim-sulfa combinations. Because rabbits show non-specific signs of illness, an examination by an experienced veterinarian is recommended in order to determine what additional diagnostic tests may be needed to further characterize the disease. We must respond quickly if an outbreak occurs. 9/19/2018 Medina County, OH Four pet rabbits on one property died of RHDV2, the first case of RHDV2 in the US. Cases in Mexico are reported World Animal Health Information Database (WAHIS Interface). Surviving rabbits were euthanized, per State regulations. this said it seems silly to be wasteful with it simply because i have no experience with 25 of 27 rabbits at a rabbit breeders property died, the remaining 2 were purchased and euthanized by the state. Many conditions may affect the liver and a variety of clinical signs may indicate a diagnosis of liver impairment, either as primary or secondary condition. Follow quarantine procedures as directed by the regulatory agency. Potgieter F, Torronen R, Wilke P. The in vitro enzyme-inducing and cytotoxic properties of South African laboratory animal contact bedding and nesting materials. April June 2020Domestic and wild rabbits died of RHDV2 in these counties: Brewster, Culberson, El Paso, Gaines, Hale, Hamilton, Hockley, Hudspeth, Jeff Davis, Kimble, Lampasas, Lubbock, Midland, Pecos, Potter, Presidio, Randall, Terrell, Ward. Blood tests. 2/2010 Pine County, MN: 25 domestic rabbits died of RHDV1. Based on a physical examination, further testing such as radiographs (xrays), bloodwork, or other tests may be needed. There are a variety of other toxins, either inhaled or contact, that can be damaging to the rabbit liver. If ultrasound-guided aspirates or biopsies are not helpful, laparotomy (exploratory surgery) or endscopy (using a rigid instrument with a camera such that the organ can be visually examined through a small incision and samples collected without having to make a large abdominal incision) may also be used to examine the liver directly and collect samples for analysis. The strain of the virus is RHDV2, closely matching the virus from an outbreak in a rabbit farm in Navarra, Spain in 2011. As WedMd writes: People with fatty liver disease are often insulin resistant. Vaccination is currently prohibited in Mexico. Finding the cause and extent of liver damage is important in guiding treatment.Your doctor is likely to start with a health history and thorough physical examination. If under mandatory quarantine by a regulatory agency, all rabbit movement into and out of the premises (including adoptions, purchases, exhibitions, sales, grooming, and nonessential veterinary care) should cease until the quarantine is over. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 2000; 9(3):146-152. These labs are using testing protocols provided by the USDA. Allow no new rabbits on the premises for 12 weeks. Edison, a three- and- a half year old, male, neutered rabbit was referred for evaluation of abdominal masses that were found on routine physical examination. HRS will provide guidelines to protect rabbits during an outbreak. Milk Thistle for pet liver disease is naturally formulated to support, strengthen and regenerate liver function and reenergize your pet. Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress, CA Ban of Fur Sales (Including Rabbit Fur). 7. A brief review will be given describing the anatomy and function of the rabbit liver. Tularemia (Rabbit Fever) Tularemia, also known as Rabbit Fever, is perhaps the most serious disease associated with rabbits and human health. Squirrels and other rodents are also susceptible to Tularemia. You can print these materials. Tularemia is often called rabbit fever, deer fly fever, meat-cutters disease, Ohara disease, and Francis disease. What is Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus? Serum Albumin: The liver is responsible for making albumins; therefore, decreases in serum albumin levels can indicate severe liver disease. Tularemia is transmitted to rabbits through the bite of an infected tick or deer fly. Policy & guidelines approved by the National HRS Board of Directors April 28, 2000, April 23, 2020, June 11, 2020. Physical examination revealed mil Overview of Etiology and Ecology, designate labs in that state for RHDV2 testing, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Washington State Department of Agriculture, purchased from an open market in Kentucky, Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus 2 (RHDV2) Vaccine Information, For veterinarians a comparison guide between the Eravac and Filavac vaccines, For Shelters/Rescues: RHDV Recommended Rabbit Standard Operating Procedures for Shelters/Rescue Facilities due to Emergence of RHDV2, Survives 105 days at 68F on fabric it remains stable for, Survives 225 days at 39F (just above freezing temperatures), There are currently no known effective anti-viral drugs or other treatments available, organic matter inactivates bleach, so be sure the item is thoroughly cleaned with soap and water before disinfecting, Check the label on the bleach to make sure it is intended for disinfection, and not expired, Never mix bleach with other cleaning products, Animals must be removed from the area when bleach is used, Wear gloves when handling bleach, and use in a well-ventilated area, Once diluted, bleach loses efficacy after 24 hours, Wet contact time must be maintained on the surface for at least 10 minutes, Following disinfection, bleach should be rinsed off and surface dried before animal contact. 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